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Frequently asked questions⚓︎

Turris OS and updates⚓︎

What is Turris OS?⚓︎

Turris OS is a Linux distribution based on top of OpenWrt. It means that we provide patches with some modifications together with our own feed Turris OS packages. It includes reForis, Updater-ng, and more packages to be user-friendly, ensure full-featured packages. Turris OS provides continuous updates for OpenWrt, easy to use web interface reForis, and integration with Turris Sentinel. Feel free to check out our website.

What versions of Turris OS are supported?⚓︎

The history of the supported list can be found on our website, where you can see when each major version was released and when it is end-of-life. It means that we will not provide any support for it anymore.

You should have your router up-to-date as soon as possible. We are testing and suggesting updates from the previous version to the recent version. We can not ensure that updates over two or more versions will be smooth and user-friendly.

How can I join testing of upcoming versions?⚓︎

Each configuration of the router could be unique. If you would like to help us to improve the Turris OS releases or even use the Turris OS development versions, which are using development versions of OpenWrt, you can. Still, there can be some issues with which you need to deal with from time to time. For example, a missing package or router does not work as it should. That depends on the selected branch.

Take a look at our dedicated article for Early testing.

User interface (reForis, LuCI)⚓︎

In Turris routers except one device Turris Shield, you can find two interfaces.


The user interface reForis is developed in-house and it is simplified to provide safe defaults and the most common features. Among other things, it contains notifications about updates. Configurations done in reForis are heavily tested and fully supported.


OpenWrt’s administration interface LuCI is developed and available on every OpenWrt router. Users are able to configure what they desire and even complicated configurations, but keep in mind that we do not support most changes done here. It is advised to be used only by experienced users because LuCI does not verify any values if they are correct. It is possible that some services do not start because of misconfigurations.

This one is not available on Turris Shield.

How do the automatic updates work?⚓︎

Turris routers check our servers for possible availability of a new update every two hours (with some variability to spread the load of the update servers and speed-up the update process). If a new Turris OS version - newer than the currently used one - is available, the router will download and install it.

After that, an automatic restart of the router will be planned according to the settings (usually at night after three days). You can restart the router earlier at a moment when you do not mind a current Internet connection loss.

Updates may be delayed or manually approved. If you use delayed updates or approvals, we suggest configuring sending notifications to your e-mail to be in the loop about updates.

What I want to re-flash my router with the latest version?⚓︎

If you somehow end up that the router is not working after some configuration, you can use snapshots and rollback to the previous state by using schnapps tool.

If you want to start over or simply use re-flash your router by using USB flash drive, take a look at specific articles for

Can I use plain OpenWrt without Turris additions?⚓︎

In principle, yes, because we send the modifications to the Linux kernel and other OpenWrt components needed for Turris back to the OpenWrt project. However, we cannot guarantee the right function or provide any support.


All software available within Turris OS and the OpenWrt itself are open-source. This means that all the source code is available. We are based on OpenWrt, but for using Wi-Fi cards and specially ath10k, there are a few blobs required.

About hardware, we release schematics and pinouts. Once, we would not manufacture any new PCBs, we will release the complete HW documentation like we do it for Turris 1.x routers.

Software available within Turris OS⚓︎


One of the objectives of the Turris router is to increase the security of routers by using regular firmware. That is managed by Updater-ng.


Turris routers use the Btrfs file system to utilize the advantages of snapshots. This lets you take all files to the state they were at when the snapshot was created. It enables the user to simply return to a functional configuration or to temporarily return to an earlier version of the system.

Schnapps is available in reForis or in CLI.

Knot Resolver⚓︎

Knot Resolver is the default DNS resolver for Turris Omnia, Turris MOX and Turris Shield. It is developed by CZ.NIC, the .cz domain registry and many provides are using it.


Syslog-ng is a system log management tool.

Honeypot as a Service⚓︎

Honeypot as a Service is a public service, which can be used on any device with a public IPv4 address. It uses the SSH protocol to catch attackers and provide you details, what credentials they used and what they were trying to do. To be able to use it, you need to register on their website and then fill a token in reForis. For more details, take a look at dedicated article for this feature.

This is created and maintained by CZ.NIC.


NetMetr is a tool to measure connection speed. It is available to install in reForis, where you can see speed results.


In reForis and also in LuCI, you can configure VPN server and VPN client by using OpenVPN.

LXC Containers⚓︎

Many of our users are using some virtualization via LXC or Docker. This feature is completely untested and not supported by us. We can not troubleshoot all GNU/Linux distributions for their issues and help to fix them. It requires knowledge to configure it on an external device to avoid unnecessary writes to the internal storage to prevent it to be worn out. Also, you need to be familiar with using SSH.

Turris Sentinel⚓︎

What it is?⚓︎

It is a threat detection and cyberattack prevention system.

How does it work?⚓︎

First we collect data about suspicious and malicious network traffic on routers. The data is sent to our servers and analyzed. Each recorded IP address is ranked with a score based on the analyzes. If the score reaches the given threshold it is considered as malicious. The list of malicious IP addresses is then supplied back to routers which update their firewall rules accordingly to block all network traffic from the malicious IP addresses. This process is happening completely automatically in real time so we are always up to date with the newest threats. Beside of that we also do some interesting statistics on the collected data.

Which data on router do we collect?⚓︎

We collect only data incoming from Internet utilizing our minipots and by parsing firewall logs about rejected and dropped packets. In general no outgoing data originated from a user is disclosed.

How can I join the malicious traffic detection / data collection?⚓︎

To send us data about malicious traffic you have to first agree with our EULA. It can be then turned on and off any time from our web administration interface reForis in the Sentinel Sentinel. However for maximal protection we recommend to leave it on all the time.

What are the minipots⚓︎

Minipot is an abbreviation for a minimal honeypot. A honeypot is a decoy system intended to mimic likely targets of cyberattacks. Its purpose is to collect information about malicious activities made by cybercriminals. Usually it is a complex system but this is not our case. Our minipots are lightweight emulations of well known services running on the application layer (HTTP, FTP, SMTP, Telnet) and collecting data about connections and login attempts made to them.

Where I can see any statistics?⚓︎

You can find all the statistics and also regular daily snapshots of the list of detected malicious IP addresses at our web interface

Documentation and community⚓︎

What is our user forum for?⚓︎

The user forum is primarily used for communication between users of Turris devices. Users can share their experiences, recommend appropriate solutions to certain situations, consult on device integration into different environments, etc.

Sometimes members of the Turris team are involved in communication (especially they announce new versions of Turris OS and other news in the project). But the forum is not designed for user support. Please contact us by e-mail:


Supported devices⚓︎


All of those, which fulfill the SFP standard, work on 100Mbps / 1Gbps / 2.5Gbps / SGMII. Some others work, too, despite not fulfilling the standard, if supported and worked by the Linux kernel.

We manufacture our own Turris SFP+ Copper module (RJ45) supported under Turris OS.

It is needed to ask the producer for information about the standard fulfilling or the Linux kernel support. Although they often respond that it works only on their own devices. On our community forum, there are messages from our users who test different SFP modules on Turris Omnia or MOX. There is a community-maintained list of compatible SFP modules, which can be found in our community documentation. Anyone can register there and log in and then add their own SFP module, which they tried.

miniPCIe Wi-Fi cards⚓︎

You can find many mini PCIe Wi-FI cards, which you can use in Turris routers, but they need to be supported in OpenWrt and Linux kernel. We tested the following mini PCIe Wi-Fi cards, which we support.

  • WNC DNXA-H1 (Wi-Fi 4 works at 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz)
  • DNXA-97-H (Wi-Fi 4 only 2.4 GHz)
  • Compex WLE200N2 (Wi-Fi 4 only 2.4 GHz)
  • Compex WLE900VX (Wi-Fi 5 Wave 1)
  • AsiaRF AW7615-NP1 (Wi-Fi 5 Wave 2, MU-MIMO)
  • AsiaRF AW7915-NP1 4x4 (Wi-Fi 6) since Turris OS 6.0
  • AsiaRF AW7915-NPD 2x2 (Wi-Fi 6, DBDC) since Turris OS 6.0
  • AsiaRF AW7916-NPD (Wi-Fi 6E, DBDC) requires LTS kernel 5.15

Cellular network (LTE/5G)⚓︎

We support LTE components, which we were selling as an LTE pack. We have a good experience with LTE model Quectel EP06. The whole pack including antennas, heatsink and so on can be found on

The configuration for the LTE connection needs to be done in the advanced administration LuCI.

We are investigating and testing 5G modems, and if there is anything new, we will let you know through our social media.

Replacement parts⚓︎

There is a possibility that you lost the power supply or somehow there was managed that the power supply was damaged. We sell replacement parts like antennas, diplexers, Wi-Fi cards through our distributors.

The full list of available replacement parts can be found on our community forum. If you did not find anything, don’t forget to reach our Technical support department


Weak wireless signal⚓︎

If you moved the position of wireless cards in Turris Omnia, we suggest double checking if you connected pigtails correctly to diplexers (those small green boards). There are two connectors. One is for 2.4 GHz and the second one is for 5.6 GHz.

It is also possible that you experience connection drops by using 2.4 GHz frequency, this one shares the frequency with Bluetooth, and that is simply overcrowded these days in urban areas. You can try to use different bands or even Wi-Fi analyzer. We suggest looking at a dedicated article to improve Wi-Fi coverage and if it is possible to use 5 GHz frequency on devices that support it.

Something does not work⚓︎

We tried to describe on a dedicated page Common scenarios, which users might experience and what was reported to us. For example, you can check it if you are not able to connect to the router or if it is not able to reach the Internet, but there are also more detailed issues like reForis incompatibility with Safari, or why the Turris MOX does not boot over the network.

We should not forget about issues while updating the router to a new version. Before we release new versions, we invite users to join public testing when releasing RC versions into the testing branch as each router configuration can be unique. That is why there is possible that something does not work as expected.

In that case, please follow Creating issues article, but keep in mind that we support only changes done in reForis.

I do not receive e-mail notifications⚓︎

Please check whether your e-mail address has been entered correctly. Do not use an address that is forwarded (or redirected) to another address; use the target address directly instead. We use antispam technologies like SPF, DKIM, and DMARC. These technologies are incompatible with simple e-mail forwarding. Mailing lists are usually safe but it depends on specific implementation and/or configuration.

Known bugs⚓︎

Turris MOX / Turris Shield is not capable to route more than 450 Mbps⚓︎

Between LAN and WAN ports, it is possible that the speed is lower than it should be. There were many improvements in the Linux kernel available since version 5.8.

OpenWrt version Turris OS version LTS OpenWrt kernel LTS Turris kernel
OpenWrt 21.02 Turris OS 6.x 5.4 5.15
OpenWrt 22.03 Turris OS 7.x 5.10 5.15
Daily snapshots (upcoming, not announced yet) Turris OS 8.x 5.15 5.15

Wi-Fi cards are reported as unassigned on the Interfaces page in reForis⚓︎

Present since: Turris OS 6.0

Even when Wi-Fi interfaces are properly configured on the Network SettingsWi-Fi page, they are displayed in the “Unassigned” group on the Interfaces page in reForis.

Although this discrepancy between the displayed state of the Wi-Fi interfaces on different reForis pages is confusing, this is just a visual representation bug on the Interfaces page. Properly configured Wi-Fi interfaces should work fine regardless of it.



Turris MOX / Turris Shield: reboot issue⚓︎

In rare cases, Turris MOX and Turris Shield are not correctly rebooted. We are investigating this issue. We are in touch with Marvell, the processor manufacturer, to solve it. We prepared some workarounds, which could improve the reboot behavior.

Limitation of the SDIO card on Turris MOX⚓︎

The provided firmware from NXP for chipset 88W8997 has limitation that it is possible to create only 4 SSIDs and have a maximum of 8 concurrent clients connected to them. It does not support WPA3 mode.

2023-05-09 2022-01-25